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- Factors Influencing Egg Production
Eggs are one of the family’s standing ingredients, which can be used for stir-frying and desserts. Do you know the relevant information about egg production? Today I will show you the relevant information about egg production.
The world’s largest egg producer is China, followed by EU member states. In Europe, the countries with the highest egg production are Germany, Poland, the United Kingdom, France, and Spain. Each laying hen accounts for about 11% of the total laying hens.
Eggs are produced by laying hens. Laying hens are specialized chicken breeds and are selected for their high egg production rate, which is different from chicken breeds that raise meat.
Laying hen production cycle
The production cycle of laying hens requires a total of three stages of incubation, growth, and maturity.
Hatchery: The chicks are hatched in a special hatchery.
Growth (18 weeks): The chicks (little hens) are kept in a growing facility for 18 weeks.
Maturity (19 to 60-70 weeks of age): Once the target weight is reached, the hen will be transferred to the laying house and exposed to the daily growing diet through artificial light to stimulate egg production. Eggs need 23-27 hours to form and lay. The shorter the time, one egg will be laid for multiple days. The peak egg production period is 25-39 weeks of age. Then the laying drops until the end of laying. At approximately 72 weeks of age, the poultry leaves the laying system.
How are mature layers produced?
The living environment of the mature layer
There are three different living environments: cages, barns, and stocking grounds.
Traditional, unconcentrated cages (“battery cages”) were developed in the 1950s to achieve high-intensity egg production by maximizing egg production per unit area.
The welfare level of hens raised in conventional battery cages has declined. The EU banned their use in 2012 and introduced a new minimum welfare standard for caged hens. Many EU countries are now using the new “concentration cage” and two other common egg production systems. All egg production systems in the EU are strictly regulated in accordance with welfare standards.
In the barn system, the hens are kept in special barns and are also designed to meet basic needs. In a free-range system, the hens live in barns and can enter the outdoor area during the day. Organic systems are similar to stocking but meet other organic feeding standards, including providing organically produced feed.
Egg production of mature layer
Most hens lay their first eggs around 18 weeks of age and then lay eggs almost every day. In the first year, up to 250 eggs can be harvested from high-yielding, well-raised laying hens. Then, as the hen retires around the sixth or seventh year, the number of eggs will naturally decrease in each subsequent year.
A hen can only lay one egg a day, and some days will not lay eggs at all. The hen’s body begins to form eggs shortly after the next egg is laid, and it takes 26 hours for the egg to form completely. Therefore, hens lay eggs later and later every day. Because the hen’s reproductive system is very sensitive to light, the hen will eventually lay too late in a day to start forming new eggs. The hen will skip a day or more and then lay eggs again.
In addition, groups of hens will not all start laying eggs on the same day, nor will they continue laying eggs for the same time.
Factors affecting egg production
Light is an important factor affecting hens to lay eggs. There are the main environmental cues received by the hen, which in turn regulates the level of hormones that affect egg production. Both the duration of the light period and the light intensity are very important. Farmers provide artificial lighting in specially developed cycles to optimize production frequency and egg quality.
In other words, when there are more hours of light every day, they will begin to lay eggs. Normally, adult chicks should maintain 23 to 24 hours of light every day for the first few days to ensure that they can find food and water, especially water. After this period of time, the number of lighting hours per day should be reduced.
Chickens of any type and age need a complete, balanced diet. The feed processing plant combines the available raw materials to provide all the nutrients the chickens need. Some producers mix intact feed with cheaper temporary grains, but doing so will dilute the level of nutrition the chicken receives and may lead to nutritional deficiencies. Inadequate nutrition will adversely affect the growth and production levels of hens.
Specific feeds based on the type and age of the chickens raised are also important. For example, do not feed a “meat maker” type diet to growing young hens or laying hens because it cannot meet their nutritional needs. Similarly, do not feed a tiered diet to growing chickens. The diet of laying hens is high in calcium, which is necessary for eggshell production. However, this calcium level is harmful to non-laying chickens. Some hens have higher calcium requirements than others. It is always good to have an extra source of calcium.
3) Living space
In order to produce effectively, the laying hen must have enough space. The floor space required by the flock depends on the size of the chicken (related to the breed of chicken) and the type of housing used. It is recommended that each hen be at least 1.5 square feet, and the most commonly used space is 2 square feet per hen. Some larger varieties require larger quotas.
The hens sleep at night and keep them from leaving the floor. The use of habitat also helps to concentrate most of the fertilizer in one location to facilitate the cleaning of the poultry house.